Bernard Musmand
Bernard Musmand activity map
Partisan activity marked in yellow as indicated by Bernard Musmand
Bernard Musmand was born in 1930 in Metz, France. The Nazi takeover in 1940 forced his family to move to the south of France, which was outside of German control. They sent Bernard to a boarding school where he posed as a Catholic. There he became a courier for the Sixieme, a resistance group, and transported falsified papers for those escaping Nazi persecution.

Bernard often came face to face with Germans or with French sympathizers, but he knew how to act confident and had a trick to ask for the time or a match in perfect German. This eased any suspicions others might have of his true identity.
Bernard Musmand    Photo 1
Bernard Musmand in Montpellier during the war.
His youth and his chutzpah saved him countless times.

When the Gestapo came to the boarding school looking for Bernard, the dean arranged his escape before the Germans could capture him. Bernard went to Millaut and again joined the Sixieme, all of whom joined the Maquis armed resistance. Aged fourteen and very afraid, Bernard went into an ambush against Nazi troops, gaining bravery once in battle.

When the French Army reformed he was made Second Lieutenant, but given a desk job. Refused permission to fight on the German front, he
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