German SS near Boves.
WHEN did the Partisans Fight?

Most of the Jewish partisans took up arms in Eastern Europe after the Hitler-Stalin Pact failed, and war between the Germans and the Soviets began in June 1941. When the Germans marched on Moscow, they captured hundred of thousands of Soviet soldiers. Many escaped into the forests and swamps in Poland and Ukraine, where they continued the war.

The first known Jewish resistance was in Belgium, in 1939, when the group The Jewish Solidarity was formed. When the Germans occupied the country in 1940, the Jews joined the Belgium Army
of Partisans and were especially active in the underground press, distributing leaflets calling for rebellion and resistance.

The Jews in France joined the resistance in 1940, after the Nazis took over most of the country, leaving the south of France in control of their collaborators, the Vichy French. The Vichy could not control the population as effectively as the Nazis, so it was easier for partisan groups to form in the south and spread out. The Jewish round ups and deportations from France began in 1942, so the Jews had some warning and some fought back.

In the spring of 1941, after the Germans invaded Greece, which had two large Jewish populations-in Solonika and Athens-Jews joined the two main resistance groups, the National Liberation Front and the National Popular Liberation Army. In Italy, many Jews joined underground resistance groups like the Garibaldi and Freedom and Justice Fighters.
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