Map of partisan activity in Eastern and Western Europe.
Source: JPEF
WHERE did the Partisans Fight?

Jewish partisans fought in almost every country in Europe. There was partisan activity in Belgium, Poland, Russia (Belarusia & Ukraine), France, Italy, Greece and Lithuania. The partisans hid their encampments in the forests, swamps and mountains. In urban areas it was much harder for them to operate.

In Western and Southern Europe there was a small Jewish population, which was treated with more far more tolerance
than the Jews in Eastern Europe, who often suffered from religious and governmental antisemitism like Gertrude Boyarski. In Western Europe, where antisemitism was not as prevalent, few all-Jewish units were formed. In Eastern Europe, there were Jewish partisans who formed all-Jewish units to protect themselves from non-Jewish antisemitic partisans and locals.

For example, only 80,000 Jews lived in Greece, while the Jewish population in Poland consisted of three million souls. The Jews in Greece, people like Leon Idas, fought with the People's Liberation Army and National Liberation Front. In Poland, they joined units of the Polish Army and the Army Ludova in Poland. In France, Jews like Bernard Musmond joined the Maquis underground fighters. They also fought in groups like Liberty and Justice groups in Italy like Walter Marx, and the Fighting Squads in Holland.
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